10/2019 - 09/2024


Upgrading SHARE-ERIC in all SHARE countries.

Summary of the Project

The Achilles heel of SHARE, very much like the European Union itself, lies in the centrifugal forces of the member states with their different policies, priorities and abilities to pay. These centrifugal forces have increased with the number of countries and endanger the cohesion of SHARE as a pan-European infrastructure, especially our ability to harmonise the scientific content and the survey methods across SHARE’s member countries. SHARE’s strategy to counter these centrifugal forces has been, from its very beginning, to establish a strong central coordination, which is financially independent.

The overarching aim of this project is therefore to strengthen the centralised approach of SHARE in order to combine scientific excellence with cohesion across all 28 SHARE member countries. To reach this aim, several objectives are set in SHARE Waves 8, 9, and 10:

  • Supporting the supranational innovation and development tasks to be executed by the Area Coordinators (scientific content)
  • Supporting the survey designers (fieldwork methods and electronic tools)
  • Funding training as it is instrumental for internal cohesion, especially in the scientifically less developed Member States and their participating SMEs
  • Due to COVID-19, adaptation and revision of scientific content, electronic tools, interview mode, and training procedures, plus implementation of the first SHARE Corona Survey including data release

Work Performed

So far, the project performed a combination of innovation and development tasks such as:

  • An extension of the cognitive function module in SHARE by adding further tests in close coordination with the US Health and Retirement Study
  • A time expenditure module measuring how much time people over 50 years old spend on different activities while keeping track of changes in their time expenditure after retirement, after changes in their living situation or after a health shock
  • The collection of physical activity data using accelerometry
  • A saving regret module, asking panel members of 65 and older whether they regret the savings paths they took earlier in life and which saving choices they would have preferred in hindsight
  • A panel version of the social network module, which tracks changes in respondents' interpersonal milieu over time and a social integration index
  • Improvement of the “jobcoder” (list of occupational titles across countries)
  • Preparing the laboratory results from the dried blood spot samples (DBSS), which were collected in Wave 6
  • Survey methodological innovations include a retention stimulation programme, improvement of sampling frames, a better targeting of respondents in institutions, and more efficient fieldwork monitoring
  • SHARE Interviewer Survey to evaluate interviewer strategies
  • Further development of the electronic tools which have made SHARE famous:
    • Development of an adaptive testing tool and improve the data and documentation tool (DDT; available at https://www.share-datadocutool.org/)
    • Completely revamped software infrastructure
    • Improvement of the translation platform
    • Compatibility with current software and hardware environments
  • In reaction to COVID-19: adaptation and revision of scientific content, electronic tools, interview mode, and training procedures, plus implementation of the first SHARE Corona Survey including first data release.
  • Launch of the new SHARE website


The SHARE-COHESION project is an important element of the overall SHARE project. Its main impact is the impact of SHARE itself, which provides an infrastructure of data permitting researchers to help matching the challenges of population ageing, both in terms of empirical research and evidence-based policy decisions. By the end of 2022, the number of users had surpassed 17,000 scientists worldwide. SHARE has been used widely by the EU Commission and Member States’ governments in designing and evaluating health care, long-term care, pension and labour market policies.

Since SHARE Wave 7, full coverage of all Continental EU Member States has been attained. The current challenge is to maintain this EU coverage in spite of the current political trends of re-nationalization and disregard for scientific evidence. The main sustainability challenge for SHARE is to align SHARE’s five operational pillars (i.e., (1) national survey, (2) routine tasks, (3) international coordination, (4) innovation and development of content and methods, (5) harmonisation with other surveys) with the available funding sources. A particular challenge is to find a manageable balance between centralised and decentralised funding.

Project News

Release 0 of Wave 9 finished
May 2023

Release 8.0.0 of Wave 8 published
February 2022

Project Midterm Review Meeting
February 2022

Review of First Reporting Period finished
September 2021

Project Start
October 2019

List of Project Partners

SHARE-ERIC is the Coordinator. Beneficiaries are the following institutions:

  • SHARE Berlin Institute (SBI), Berlin, Germany
  • University of Southern Denmark (SDU), Odense, Denmark
  • University of Paris-Dauphine (DAUPHINE), Paris, France
  • Hebrew University, Jerusalem (HUJI), Israel
  • TU Dortmund University (TUDO), Dortmund, Germany
  • Università Ca’ Foscari (UNIVE), Venice, Italy
  • University of Padova, Department of Economics and Management (UNIPD), Padova, Italy
  • Centerdata, Tilburg, (Centerdata), The Netherlands
  • Center for Monetary and Financial Studies (CEMFI), Madrid, Spain
  • Max Planck Society, Munich, Germany (participation terminated)
  • Munich Research Institute for the Economics of Aging and SHARE Analyses gGmbH (MEA), Munich, Germany (participation terminated)



Markova, E. and G. Yordanova (2022): How are we ageing in Bulgaria? First results from Bulgaria from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE 2020/2021), Waves 7 & 8. Sofia: Nice An.


Book Chapters

Apicella, G. and E. De Giorgi (2022): Gender attitudes toward longevity and retirement planning: theory and evidence. In: Corazza, M., Perna, C., Pizzi, C., Sibillo, M. (eds) Mathematical and Statistical Methods for Actuarial Sciences and Finance. MAF 2022.: 19-24. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-99638-3_4.

Atzendorf, J., S. Kuitunen-Paul and T.-V. Hannemann (2021): Rauchen Sie noch oder dampfen Sie schon? Vergleich des Anteils an E-Zigarettenkonsument*innen in den älteren Bevölkerungsgruppen in 26 europäischen Ländern und Israel - Daten aus dem SHARE Survey von 2019/2020 (8. Welle). (Are you still Smoking or already Vaping? Comparison of the Share of E-cigarette Users in the Older Population Groups in 26 European Countries and Israel - Data from the SHARE Survey from 2019/2020 (8th wave).) In: Stöver, H. Tobacco Harm Reduction – Neue Raucherentwöhnungsstrategien, Frankfurt am Main: Fachhochschulverlag.

Chouzouris, M., A. Lyberaki and P. Tinios (2022): Are attitudes to financial risk reflected in precautional measures during the COVID-19 pandemic? A European study of individuals aged 50+. In: Lau, E. and A. J. Makin et al. Economics and Finance Readings, 57-67. Singapore: Springer.

Hărăguș, M. (2022): Intergenerational contacts during the COVID-19 pandemic: Personal or electronic? In: Gao, Q. and J. Zhou. Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population. Technology in Everyday Living. HCII 2022. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 13331, Singapore: Springer.


Journal Articles

Abatemarco, A., E. Lagomarsino and M. Russolillo (2023): Gender Pension Gap in EU Countries: A Between-Group Inequality Approach. Risks 11 (3). DOI: 10.3390/risks11030063.

Angelova, M. (2021): Factors Affecting the Active Life of People Aged 50 and Over in Europe Before and During the Pandemic. Revista Inclusiones 8: 62-90.

Arnault, L., F. Jusot and T. Renaud (2021): Economic Vulnerability and Unmet Healthcare Needs among the Population Aged 50+ years During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Europe. European Journal of Ageing. DOI: 10.1007/s10433-021-00645-3.

Arpino, B., V. Bordone and G. Di Gessa (2023): COVID-19 precautionary behaviors and vaccine acceptance among older individuals: The role of close kin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 120 (13). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2214382120.

Bergmann, M., A. Bethmann, T.-V. Hannemann and A. Schumacher (2022): Who are the unvaccinated? Determinants of SARSCoV-2 vaccinations among older adults across Europe. easy_social_sciences Mixed 1: 1-11. DOI: 10.15464/easy.2022.01.

Bergmann, M., M. V. Hecher and E. Sommer (2022): The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the provision of instrumental help by older people across Europe. Frontiers in Sociology 7. DOI: 10.3389/fsoc.2022.1007107.

Bonsang, E. and E. Pronkina (2023): Family size and vaccination among older individuals: The case of COVID-19 vaccine. Economics & Human Biology 50. DOI: 10.1016/j.ehb.2023.101256. 

Bovil, T., C. T. Wester, L. Scheel-Hincke and K. Andersen-Ranberg (2022): Risk factors of post-COVID-19 condition attributed to COVID-19 disease in people aged 50+ in Europe and Israel. Public Health 214: 69-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2022.09.017.

Calvey, B., R. Maguire, R. de Andrade Moral and J. McHugh Power (2023): Health asymmetry as a predictor of depressive symptomatology over time among older European adults: A growth curve analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 166. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2023.111158.

Chen, S., X. Chen and H. Zhang (2022): Polypharmacy Among People Living with Dementia — Israel and 24 Countries in European Union, 2015–2019. China CDC Weekly 4 (45). DOI: 10.46234/ccdcw2022.204.

Cohen, L., S. Shiovitz-Ezra and B. Erlich (2023): Support for older parents in need in Europe: The role of the social network and of individual and relational characteristics. Innovation in Aging. DOI: 10.1093/geroni/igad032.

Cohn-Schwartz, E., Y. Hoffman and A. Shrira (2022): The effect of pre-pandemic PTSD and depression symptoms on mental distress among older adults during COVID-19. Journal of Psychatric Research 151: 633-637. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2022.05.022.

Cohn-Schwartz, E. and R. Khalaila (2022): Accelerometer-Assessed Physical Activity and Cognitive Performance among European Adults Aged 50+: The Mediating Effects of Social Contacts and Depressive Symptoms. Healthcare 10 (11). DOI: 10.3390/healthcare10112279.

Cordeiro, C., P. Câmara Pestana, B. Côrte Real and F. Novais (2022): Long time, no sleep: Sleep in older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders 24(3):21m03224. DOI: 10.4088/PCC.21m03224.

de Groot, S., I. Santi, P. Bakx, B. Wouterse and P. van Baal (2023): Informal care costs according to age and proximity to death to support cost-effectiveness analyses. PharmacoEconomics. DOI: 10.1007/s40273-022-01233-8.

del Pozo Cruz, B., R. M. Alfonso-Rosa, R. López-Bueno, S. J. Fairclough, A. Rowlands and J. del Pozo Cruz (2022): Associations between Hospitalization and Device-Assessed Physical Activity in a Representative Sample of Older Adults. Gerontology. DOI: 10.1159/000527543.

Delaruelle, K., J. Vergauwen, P. Dykstra, D. Mortelmans and P. Bracke (2023): Marital-history differences in increased loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic: A European study among older adults living alone. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 108. DOI: 10.1016/j.archger.2023.104923.

Desrichard, O., N. Heiser, O. Renaud, S. Zuber, M. Oris and M. Kliegel (2022): Contextual variation in cognitive performance of older adults: Demonstration of an age-of-examiner effect. The Clinical Neuropsychologist. DOI: 10.1080/13854046.2022.2150689.

Eglseer, D., M. Traxler and S. Bauer (2022): Association between the Intake of Different Protein Sources and Obesity Coexisting with Low Handgrip Strength in Persons near Retirement Age. Nutrients 14 (21). DOI: 10.3390/nu14214684.

Eimontas, J., G. Gegieckaitė, O. Zamalijeva and V. Pakalniškienė (2022): Unmet healthcare needs predict depression symptoms among older adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19 (15). DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19158892.

Felez-Nobrega, M., A. O. Werneck, D. El Fatouhi, K. de Luca, S. M. Shariful Islam and F. Franzese (2022): Device-based physical activity and late-life depressive symptoms: An analysis of influential factors using share data. Journal of Affective Disorders 322. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2022.11.006.

Fernández, I., A. García-Mollá, A. Oliver, N. Sansó and J. M. Tomás (2022): The role of social and intellectual activity participation in older adults’ cognitive function. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. DOI: 10.1016/j.archger.2022.104891.

Flawinne, X., M. Lefebvre, S. Perelman, P. Pestieau and J. Schoenmaeckers (2022): Nursing homes and mortality in Europe: Uncertain causality. Health Economics. DOI: 10.1002/hec.4613.

Gonzales, S. and J. J. Fernández (2022): Socio-Economic Gaps in Workers’ Participation in Private Pension Programmes in Ten European Countries. Journal of Social Policy. DOI: 10.1017/S0047279422000897.

González Rodríguez, I., M. Pascual Sáez and D. Cantarero Prieto (2022): Have health inequalities increased during the COVID-19 pandemic? Evidence from recent years for older European Union citizens. Environmental Research and Public Health 19(13), 7812. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137812.

Grané, A., I. Albarrán and D. Peran (2022): Looking for COVID side effects in the EU through the analysis of health and behavioural profiles. Quality & Quantity. DOI: 10.1007/s11135-022-01606-3.

Grmanová, E. (2022): Computer skills of older people: Case of Slovakia and Finland. Sociálno-ekonomická revue 2 (2022): 21-28. DOI: 10.52665/ser20220203.

Grmanová, E. and J. Bartek (2022): Factors affecting the working life lenght (sic) of older people in the European Union. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues 10 (1). DOI: 10.9770/jesi.2022.10.1(3). 

Grmanova, E. and J. Bartek (2023): Job Satisfaction as Important Factor of Work Quality and the Influence of Selected Factors. Marketing and Management of Innovations 1: 41-54. DOI: 10.21272/mmi.2023.1-04.

Győri, A. (2023): The impact of social-relationship patterns on worsening mental health among the elderly during the COVID-19 pandemic: Evidence from Hungary. SSM - Population Health 21. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2023.101346.

Hansen, R., L. Scheel-Hincke, B. Jeune and L. Ahrenfeldt (2023): Sex differences in vision and hearing impairments across age and European regions: Findings from SHARE. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift. DOI: 10.1007/s00508-023-02223-2.

Heidinger, T. and L. Richter (2022): Examining the Impact of COVID-19 Experiences on Reported Psychological Burden Increase in Older Persons: The Effects of Illness Severity and Social Proximity. Frontiers in Psychology 13. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.884729.

Kekäläinen, T., M. Luchetti, D. Aschwanden, A. R. Sutin and A. Terracciano (2022): Individual and country-level factors associated with self-reported and accelerometer-based physical activity in old age: a cross-national analysis of European countries. European Journal of Ageing. DOI: 10.1007/s10433-022-00737-8.

Kneip, T., A. Börsch-Supan and K. Andersen-Ranberg (2022): Social, Health and Economic Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic from a European Perspective. European Journal of Ageing 19: 789-792. DOI: 10.1007/s10433-022-00744-9.

König, R. and A. Seifert (2022): Digitally savvy at the home office: Computer skills of older workers during the COVID-19 pandemic across Europe. Frontiers in Sociology 7(858052). DOI: 10.3389/fsoc.2022.858052.

König, R. and B. Isengard (2023): Coping With Covid‐19: Older Europeans and the Challenges of Connectedness and Loneliness. Social Inclusion 11 (1). DOI: 10.17645/si.v11i1.6072.

Kotschy, R. and D. E. Bloom (2022): A comparative perspective on long-term care systems. International Social Security Review 75 (3-4): 47-69. DOI: 10.1111/issr.12307.

Kovács, N., O. Liska, E. O. Idara-Umoren, N. Mahrouseh and O. Varga (2023): Trends in dental care utilisation among the elderly using longitudinal data from 14 European countries: A multilevel analysis. PLoS ONE 18 (6). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0286192.

Lersch, P. and O. Groh-Samberg (2022): The long reach of class origin on financial investments and net worth. Acta Sociologica. DOI: 10.1177/00016993221129792.

Li, J., B. Yuan and M. Wang (2023): How work pattern transformation may affect the mental health of older workers faced with unmet health care needs during the pandemic? A comparative investigation of different work models. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. DOI: 10.1097/jom.0000000000002813.

Litwin, H. and B. Erlich (2022): The Effects of Control Measures and Social Networks on Depression Among Older People During the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic. OBM Geriatrics 6 (4). DOI: 10.21926/obm.geriatr.2204217.

Litwin, H. and M. Levinsky (2022): Does Personality Shape the Personal Social Networks of Older Europeans? European Journal of Ageing. DOI: 10.1007/s10433-021-00678-8.

Litwin, H. and M. Levinsky (2022): The Interplay of Personality Traits and Social Network Characteristics in the Subjective Well-Being of Older Adults. Research on Aging. DOI: 10.1177/01640275221113048.

Litwin, H. and B. Erlich (2023): The Short and Long-Term Correlates of Change in Loneliness Status: The Role of Epidemic Control Measures During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Aging & Social Policy. DOI: 10.1080/08959420.2023.2226292.

Maltagliati, S., I. Saoudi, P. Sarrazin, S. Cullati, S. Sieber, A. Chalabaev and B. Cheval (2022): Women carry the weight of deprivation on physical inactivity: Moderated mediation analyses in a European sample of adults over 50 Years of age. SSM - Population Health 20. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2022.101272.

Maltarić, M., P. Ruščić, M. Kolak, D. Vranešić Bender, B. Kolarić, T. Ćorić, P. Sousa Hoejskov, J. Bošnir and J. Gajdoš Kljusurić (2023): Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Related to the Health Related and Well-Being Outcomes of European Mature Adults and Elderly, with an Additional Reference to Croatia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 20 (6). DOI: 10.3390/ijerph20064893.

Marconcin, P., S. Barak, G. Ferrari, É. R. Gouveia, M. de Maio Nascimento, R. Willig, M. Varela and A. Marques (2022): Prevalence of Frailty and Its Association with Depressive Symptoms among European Older Adults from 17 Countries: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19 (21). DOI: 10.3390/ijerph192114055.

Matanić Vautmans, M., M. Oreb and S. Drezgić (2023): Socioeconomic inequality in the use of long-term care for the elderly in Europe. Public Sector Economics 47 (2): 149-176. DOI: 10.3326/pse.47.2.1.

Meier, C., S. Vilpert, C. Borrat-Besson, R. Jox and J. Maurer (2022): Health literacy among older adults in Switzerland: cross-sectional evidence from a nationally representative population-based observational study. Swiss Medical Weekly. DOI: 10.4414/smw.2022.w30158.

Mey, R., J. Calatayud, J. Casaña, F. Cuenca-Martínez, L. Suso-Martí, L. L. Andersen and R. López-Bueno (2022): Handgrip strength in older adults with chronic diseases from 27 European countries and Israel. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. DOI: 10.1038/s41430-022-01233-z.

Mikelsone, M. and I. Reine (2022): Healthcare accessibility since and during Covid-19 pandemic among older individuals in Europe. European Journal of Public Health 32. DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckac130.108.

Mosconi, G., G. P. Vigezzi, P. Bertuccio, A. Amerio and A. Odone (2023): Transition to retirement impact on risk of depression and suicidality: results from a longitudinal analysis of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 32. DOI: 10.1017/S2045796023000239.

Ohno, M. and D. Dzúrová (2022): Body Mass Index and Risk for COVID-19-Related Hospitalization in Adults Aged 50 and Older in Europe. Nutrients 14 (19). DOI: 10.3390/nu14194001.

Omar, P. and P. Benedetta (2022): Depression Deterioration of Older Adults during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Outbreak in Europe. Social Science & Medicine. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2022.114828.

Orsholitis, D., S. Cullati, B. Cheval, P. Ghisletta, M. Oris, J. Maurer, M. Studer, A. Marques, P. Marconcin , É. R. Gouveia, M. Kliegel and A. Ihle (2022): Residential trajectories across the life course and their association with cognitive functioning in later life. Scientific Reports 12. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-18501-4.

Paccagnella, O. and B. Pongiglione (2022): Depression deterioration of older adults during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in Europe. Social Science & Medicine 229. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2022.114828.

Panes Lundmark, V., M. Josefsson and A. Rieckmann (2023): Predictors of loneliness onset and maintenance in European older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Psychology 14. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1172552.

Pasqualini, M., A. Solé-Auró and B. Arpino (2022): The partner in the plate: the association between changes in partnership status and protein consumption among older people in Europe. Ageing & Society. DOI: 10.1017/S0144686X22001040.

Pikhartova, J., S. Sharif and H. Pikhart (2023): Inequalities in healthcare utilization among older adults during the second year of covid-19 pandemic: findings from the share cohort. Population Medicine 5 (Supplement A). DOI: 10.18332/popmed/164283.

Polinesi, G., M. Ciommi and C. Gigliarano (2023): Impact of COVID-19 on elderly population well-being: evidence from European countries. Quality & Quantity. DOI: 10.1007/s11135-023-01656-1.

Polo-López, A., J. Calatayud, R. Núñez-Cortés, L. L. Andersen, R. Moya-Ramón and R. López-Bueno (2023): Dose-response association between handgrip strength and hypertension: a longitudinal study of 76 503 European older adults. Current Problems in Cardiology 48 (9). DOI: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2023.101813.

Quintal, C., L. Moura Ramos, M. Antunes and Ó. Lourenço (2023): Unmet healthcare needs among the population aged 50+ and their association with health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. European Journal of Ageing 20. DOI: 10.1007/s10433-023-00758-x.

Rajevska, O., A. Reine, D. Baltmane and I. Gehtmane-Hofmane (2022): Older workers in the Baltic states over the pandemic year: SHARE Corona Survey results. Economic Science for Rural Development 56. DOI: 10.22616/ESRD.2022.56.033.

Reuter, A., Š. Smolić, T. Bärnighausen and N. Sudharsanan (2023): Predicting missed health care visits during the COVID-19 pandemic using machine learning methods: evidence from 55,500 individuals from 28 European countries. BMC Health Services Research 23. DOI: 10.1186/s12913-023-09473-w.

Richter, L., S. Schreml and T. Heidinger (2022): Ready for vaccination? COVID-19 vaccination willingness of older people in Austria. Frontiers in Public Health. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.859024.

Rosenberg, D., S. Shiovitz-Ezra and L. Ayalon (2023): Helps you, helps me? Provision of instrumental and personal care and loneliness among adults aged 50 years and older during the COVID-19 pandemic. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 113. DOI: 10.1016/j.archger.2023.105065.

Sand, G. and J. Bristle (2022): Motivating protective behavior against COVID-19: Fear versus hope. Journal of Affective Disorders. DOI: 10.1177/08982643221089427.

Schmitz, A. and M. Brandt (2022): Health Limitations, Regional Care Infrastructure and Wellbeing in Later Life: A Multilevel Analysis of 96 European Regions. Social Indicators Research. DOI: 10.1007/s11205-022-02967-w.

Settels, J. (2023): Conditional on the Environment? The Contextual Embeddedness of Age, Health, and Socioeconomic Status as Predictors of Remote Work among Older Europeans Through the COVID-19 Pandemic. Sociological Perspectives. DOI: 10.1177/07311214231167171.

Settels, J. and P. Böckerman (2023): The effects of COVID-19-era unemployment and business closures upon the physical and mental health of older Europeans: Mediation through financial circumstances and social activity. SSM - Population Health 23. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2023.101419.

Settels, J. and A. Leist (2022): The role of country-level availability and generosity of healthcare services, and old-age ageism for missed healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic control measures in Europe. Journal of Ageing and Health. DOI: 10.1177/08982643221087097.

Shahaj, O., G. Ksinan Jiskrova, M. Bobák, H. Pikhart and A. Ksinan (2023): Psychological Distress Among Older Adults During the First Wave of SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic: Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe. International Journal of Public Health. DOI: 10.3389/ijph.2023.1604372.

Shiovitz-Ezra, S., B. Erlich and L. Ayalon (2023): Short- and Medium-Term Effects of Ageism on Loneliness Experienced During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Applied Gerontology. DOI: 10.1177/07334648231159372.

Silberman‑Beltramella, M., A. Ayala, C. Rodríguez‑Blázquez and M. João Forjaz (2022): Social relations and health in older people in Spain using SHARE survey data. BMC Geriatrics 22(276). DOI: 10.1186/s12877-022-02975-y.

Sîrbu, A. and M. Asandului (2021): Determinants of Subjective Well-being among Romanian Older Adults. Review of Economic and Business Studies 14(2): 111-124. DOI: 10.47743/rebs-2021-2-0006.

Sîrbu, A. C., A. Panaite and M. Asandului (2021): An Overview of the Intergenerational Financial Transfers in Romania. Journal of Public Administration, Finance and Law 21. DOI: 10.47743/jopafl-2021-21-08.

Smolić, Š., M. Fabijančić and N. Blaževski (2022): How did fear of COVID-19 affect access to healthcare in Central and Eastern Europe? Findings from populations aged 50 or older after the outbreak. Eastern European Economic. DOI: 10.1080/00128775.2022.2150218.

Sun, W., Z. Ren, S. Zhu, S. Cheng, W. Liu, H. C. W. Li, W. Xia, C. Yuan, D. Adeloye, I. Rudan, D. Canoy and P. Song (2023): Spousal concordance in adverse childhood experiences and the association with depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older adults: findings across China, the US, and Europe. Frontiers in Public Health. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2023.1158590.

Torres, Z., A. Oliver and J. M. Tomás (2022): Mapping Protective Performance of Social Network Types on Health and Quality of Life in Older People in European Regions. Journal of Aging and Health. DOI: 10.1177/08982643221142078.

Tur-Sinai, A. (2022): Out-of-Pocket Expenditure on Medical Services Among Older Adults: A Longitudinal Analysis. Frontiers in Public Health 10. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.836675.

Tur-Sinai, A., N. Bentur and G. Lamura (2022): Perceived deterioration in health status among older adults in Europe and Israel following the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. European Journal of Ageing. DOI: 10.1007/s10433-022-00705-2.

Uccheddu, D. and E. L. Rizzi (2022): Intergenerational ties and COVID-19 contagion: A study on European adults 50 years and older using SHARE data. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B 78 (4): 749-763. DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gbac196.

Vaculíková, J. and M. Hanková (2023): Loneliness and Mental Health in Response to Early and Late COVID-19 Outbreak: A Cross-Sectional Study of Czech Adults Aged 50 and Over. Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine 9. DOI: 10.1177/23337214231174129.

Van den Broek, T. and M. Fleischmann (2021): The Causal Effect of Number of Children on Later-life Overweight and Obesity in Parous Women an Instrumental Variable Study. Preventive Medicine Reports 24. DOI: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101528.

Veronese, N., L. Smith, F. Di Gennaro, O. Bruyère, L. Yang, J. Demurtas, S. Maggi, S. Sabico, N. M. Al-Daghri, M. Barbagallo, L. J. Dominguez and A. Koyanagi (2022): Influenza vaccination and COVID-19 outcomes in people older than 50 years: Data from the observational longitudinal SHARE study. Vaccines 10 (6), 899. DOI: 10.3390/vaccines10060899.

Wang, H., E. Smith-Greenaway, S. Bauldry, R. Margolis and A. M. Verdery (2022): Mourning in a pandemic: The differential impact of widowhood on mental health during COVID-19. The Journals of Gerontology Series B, gbac085. DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gbac085.

Wester, C.T., Bovil, T., Scheel-Hincke, L.L., Ahrenfeldt, L. J., Möller, S. and Andersen-Ranberg, K. (2022): Longitudinal changes in mental health following the COVID-19 lockdown: Results from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Annals of Epidemiology 74. DOI: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2022.05.010.

Wester, C. T., L. Scheel-Hincke, T. Bovil, K. Andersen-Ranberg, L. Ahrenfeldt and N. Hvidt (2022): Prayer frequency and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among older adults in Europe. Vaccine. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2022.09.044.

Wieczorek, M., C. Meier, S. Vilpert, R. Reinecke, C. Borrat-Besson, J. Maurer and M. Kliegel (2023): Association between multiple chronic conditions and insufficient health literacy: cross-sectional evidence from a population-based sample of older adults living in Switzerland. BMC Public Health 23. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-023-15136-6.

Yastrebov, G. and D. Maskileyson (2022): The effect of COVID-19 confinement and economic support measures on the mental health of older population in europe (sic) and Israel. Social Science & Medicine 314. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2022.115445.

Yordanova , G. and E. Markova (2023): Work-life balance and parental coping patterns during home schooling as a result of Covid-19 lockdowns: empirical evidence from Bulgaria. Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe. DOI: 10.1080/25739638.2023.2216499.

Zhang, P. and S. Chen (2022): Association between workplace and mental health and its mechanisms during COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional, population-based, multi-country study. Journal of Affective Disorders 310: 116-122. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2022.05.038.

Zheng, H., Q. He, H. Xu, X. Zheng and Yanfang Gu (2022): Lower grip strength and insufficient physical activity can increase depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older European adults: a longitudinal study. BMC Geriatrics. DOI: 10.1186/s12877-022-03392-x.


Working Papers

Apicella, G. and E. De Giorgi (2022): A Behavioural Gap in Survival Beliefs. SSRN. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3821595.

Apicella, G. and E. De Giorgi (2023): A Leveraged Gender Gap: The Combined Effect of Longevity Risk (Mis)-Perception and Financial Risk-Taking. Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper No. 23-09. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.4350916.

Arpino, B., V. Bordone and G. Di Gessa (2022): Close kin influence COVID-19 precautionary behaviors and vaccine acceptance of older individuals. SocArXiv. Ithaca.

Arpino, B., C. Mair, N. T. Quashie and R. Antczak (2021): Loneliness Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Are Unpartnered and Childless Older Adults at Higher Risk? SocArXiv. Ithaca.

Bergeot, J. and F. Jusot (2022): Beliefs, risk and time preferences and COVID-19 preventive behavior: Evidence from France. SHARE Working Paper Series 79. Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy. Munich.

Bergmann, M., T.-V. Hannemann, A. Bethmann and A. Schumacher (2021): Determinants of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccinations in the 50+ Population. SHARE Working Paper Series 72-2021. Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA). Munich. DOI: 10.17617/2.3345550.

Berniell, I., Y. Fawaz, A. Laferrère, P. Mira and E. Pronkina (2021): The COVID-19 Curtain: Can Past Communist Regimes Explain the Vaccination Divide in Europe? SHARE Working Paper Series 75-2021. Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA). Munich. DOI: 10.17617/2.3351839. 

Bertoni, M., D. Cavapozzi, G. Pasini and C. Pavese (2021): Remote Working and Mental Health during the First Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic. IZA Discussion Paper 14773. IZA – Institute of Labor Economics. Bremen.

Brugiavini, A., C. Di Novi and C. E. Orso (2021): Visiting Parents in Times of COVID-19: The Impact of Parent-adult Child Contacts on the Psychological Health of the Elderly. SHARE Working Paper Series 73-2021. Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA). Munich.

Costa-Font, J., S. Jiménez, C. Vilaplana Prieto and A. Viola (2022): Long-term Care in Spain. Estudios sobre la Economía Española 2022/23. fedea. Madrid.

Gineikytė-Kanclerė, V., L. Klimavičiūtė and M. Schito (2022): The effects of restricted access to healthcare and education on vulnerable people: an analysis of the determinants of health and education outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Research Square. DOI: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-2275590/v1.

Hansen, R., L. Scheel-Hincke and L. Ahrenfeldt (2022): Sex differences in vision and hearing impairments across age and European regions. Research Square. DOI: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-1891526/v1.

Jang, S. Y., A. Oksuzyan, M. Myrskylä, F. van Lenthe and S. Loi (2023): Healthy Immigrants, Unhealthy Ageing? Analysis of Health Decline among Older Migrants and Natives Across European Countries. Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research. MDIPR Working Paper 2023-024. Rostock.

Mikucka, M. and R. Antczak (2022): Covid-19 Protective Behaviour Depends on an Interplay of National Policies and Individual Vulnerability: A Cross-Sectional Study of Older Adults in 27 European Countries. SocArXiv Paper. SocArXiv. Ithaca. DOI: 10.31235/osf.io/tfb7r.

Mikucka, M. and R. Antczak (2023): The role of individual characteristics and national distancing policies for COVID-19 protective behaviour among older adults: a cross-sectional study of 27 European countries. OSF Preprint. DOI: 10.31235/osf.io/md5nq.

Pronkina, E. (2021): Long-lasting Impact of Education on Individual Extreme Confinement Choice among 50+ during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic. SHARE Working Paper Series 71-2021. Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA). Munich. DOI: 10.17617/2.3339651.

Pronkina, E. and D. I. Rees (2022): Predicting COVID-19 vaccine uptake. DP No. 15625. IZA – Institute of Labor Economics. Bremen.

Reine, I., M. Miķelsone, H. Guðmundsson, A. Ivanovs, S. Tomsone and H. S. Guðmundsson (2023): Loneliness, social isolation and ageing: a methodological approach to compare Latvian and Icelandic older populations in the course of COVID-19 pandemic. Research Square. DOI: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-2870118/v1.

Schütz, J. (2023): Who benefits from digital transformation in (health) care? Internet use among informal carers and care recipients in Europe. BZPD Working Paper 05-2023. Hochschule Kempten. Kempten.

Stonkute, D., A. Lorenti and J. Spijker (2023): Educational Disparities in Disability-Free Life Expectancy across Europe: A Focus on the East-West Gaps from a Gender Perspective. Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research. Rostock.

Uccheddu, D. and E. L. Rizzi (2022): Ambivalence of intergenerational ties in COVID-19 contagion: A study on European adults 50 years and older using SHARE data. OSF Preprint.

Van Winkle, Z. and B. Konechni (2022): The Role of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions for the Mental Health Consequences of Widowhood during the COVID-19 Pandemic. SocArXiv. Ithaca. DOI: 10.31235/osf.io/2rc5s.

Weziak-Bialowolska, D. & P. Bialowolski (2022): Bidirectional associations between meaning in life and the health, emotional ill-being and daily life functioning outcomes among older adults. Psychology & Health, DOI: 10.1080/08870446.2022.2105842.



Cusa, M. (2022): Social capital and resilience to the Covid-19 crisis. Evidence for senior Europeans. Master's thesis. Università degli Studi di Padova. Padova.

Forzan, A. (2022): Mental health effects of oral contraceptives access among European women. Master's thesis. Università degli Studi di Padova. DOI: 20.500.12608/37736.

Hu, H. (2022): Identifying Risk Factors for Cognitive Decline Using Statistical Learning Techniques and Functional Data Analysis. Master’s thesis. University of Saskatchewan. DOI: 10388/14244.

Lestari, S. (2022): Active and healthy ageing in Europe: significance of social relationships. Doctoral dissertation. Umea University.

Östgren, N. (2022): The association between education and mental health. A study on elderly Swedish citizens. Master's thesis. Umea University. Umea.

Peronio, T. (2022): The Covid-19 isolation effect on the mental health of older people. Master's thesis. Università degli Studi di Padova. Padova.

Popov, M.-Y. (2023): COVID-19: Healthcare Utilization Changes and Social Factors: A study on individuals aged over 50 in Europe. Master's thesis. Umea University. Umea.

Riekhoff, A. (2021): Why retire? Because we can. Blog article. Finnish Centre for Pensions. Helsinki.

Sá Felgueiras, A. F. (2022): Saúde percebida, ansiedade, depressão e solidão de cuidadores e pessoas cuidadas de idade avançada na pandemia COVID-19: Resultados do Projeto SHARE em Portugal. Master's thesis. Universidade do Porto. DOI: 10216/145539.

Theodoropoulos, N. and G. Voucharas (2022): Containment measures and job loss: Evidence from SHARE Corona surveys. Economic Policy Papers No. 03-22. Department of Economics, University of Cyprus. 

Urbinati, S. (2021): Condizioni lavorative e finanziarie dei cittadine Europei ultracinquantenni (Working and financial conditions of European citizens over 50). Master’s thesis. Università degli Studi di Padova. Padova.


Data Documentation

SHARE Release Guide 8.0.0 (PDF)

Bergmann, M. and A. Börsch-Supan (Eds.) (2021). SHARE Wave 8 Methodology: Collecting Cross-National Survey Data in Times of COVID-19. Munich: MEA, Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.

Schuller, K., Lasson, S., Sand, G., Bergmann, M., Pflüger, S., Hannemann, T., Börsch-Supan, A. (2021). SHARE Compliance Profiles – Wave 8. Munich: MEA, Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.

Public Project Deliverables

Please find all Public Project Deliverables here.

This project received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement number 870628